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10/03/2018 11:10:00 PM

కొండవీడు కోట చరిత్ర

Kondaveedu is that the largest hill fort in gift Andhra Pradesh state, set concerning twenty seven kms southwest of Guntur town.
This fort is in the Kondaveedu hills range.
Prolayavemareddy started construction of associate degree impregnable fort at Kondaveedu
in concerning 1335 AD, later his son Anavotha Reddy completed and shifted his capital from Addanki to Kondaveedu within the year 1355 AD.
At present, there square measure such a big amount of monuments, though they may be small, but they are of immense historical and cultural value.
Kondaveedu fort commands a picturesque view from Nemmalla buruju(bastion), south of Nemmala buruju hills sprawling over three kilometers up to NH5 with green forest.
Apart from Nemmalla buruju there are 22 buruju’s, some of which are Tara buruju or Chukkala konda buruju, Jetty buruju, A.ramanal buruju, Sajjamahal buruju, B.khilla buruju, Miriala chattu buruju, Pamu kuduru buruju, Allavari buruju. These bastions are built on hillocks connecting with a long chain of wall.
Of all the Bastions Taraburuju is most spectacular eye catching associate degreed an icon of Kondaveedu fort.
As we know, that Kondaveedu fort was built in hills which are more or less in an oval shape. By being laid a ghat road to this fort, easy access is now available, with this Kondaveedu is going to be a popular holiday destination.
It is notable for lakes, forest with 56 kinds of herbal plants, hills and a beautiful description of the fort was made by the great poets like Srinatha and
later in 20th century by Duvuri Ramireddy in their writings. once we enter the fort, either from the east or west we indispensably encounter with enchanting water tanks namely Muttyalamma cheruvu(Kunalamma), Puttalamma cheruvu, Vedulla cheruvu. If we walk through this valley feast our eyes in the beauty all-round us.

                                              BIG NANDI – Vicinity of Kattulabhavi 

Reddy kings having found that Addanki was weak from the purpose of strategy, they at once shifted the capital to Kondaveedu.
Considering the importance of water they gave a lot of stress on water harvest home and conservation during this hill fort.
The construction of three water tanks within the fort provides valuable knowledge regarding the engineering skills available in 14th century.
These 3 tanks were naturally fashioned in a very rough manner among hills.
Reddy kings got them cut 15 to 20 feet deep, collecting water from the hills around them. These efforts not only meet the drinking water needs of the people in the contonment but also helped the survival of the live stock; even today the tourists and livestock quench their thirst in these tanks in mid summer.
This is very a classic example of associate degree ancient ingenuity in coming up with water harvest home structure to satisfy the wants of the individuals living within the fort.
Reddy kings adopted similar water harvesting techniques in their other forts like Vinukonda, Bellamkonda, Kondapalli and so on.
Hill defence square measure situated in hills and rocky areas, in such forts water is scarce in those days.
Then however may well be attainable for a garrison of many hundred men live at the highest of those hills throughout the year while not comfortable provide of drinking water?
If we tend to observe in Kondaveedu and their alternative forts, the water system arrangements, the Reddy kings utilised all depressions, comparatively shallow, wide and flat, cavities, deep fissures, fractures, where
water may be keep were used and within the flat areas, the ground was excavated in the form of reservoir and entirely artificial works were built.
It means in hills water resources were considerable and therefore the aforesaid kings took all attainable steps to induce obviate the seasonal fluctuations.


CULTURAL HERITAGE
Cultural heritage may be sub divided into 2 types- tangible and intangible heritage.
The former includes designed heritage like spiritual buildings, museums, monuments and archeological sites, as well as movable heritage such as works of art and manuscripts.
Intangible cultural heritage includes customs, music, fashion and other traditions within a particular culture.

MONUMENTS
Monuments: price seeing monuments in and around Kondaveedu fort includes; Moolankureswari temple in Ameenabadh village wherever the Reddy king’s family deities’ temple is found on alittle fascinating hill.
Reddy kings offered innumerable donations to this temple. The temple was rebuilt by Pedakomativema Reddy; Veerabadhra temple located in the midst of Phirangipuram village in which daily Pooja’s are being performed for god Veerabadra and his consort Badhra kali.
The most fascinating factor concerning this temple is that an enormous stone inscription written by the nice author Srinatha, issued by the queen Suramamba wife of Pedakomativema, at the
time of opening of Santanasagaram (water tank) meant for the purpose of irrigation and drinking water for the people, in 1410 AD.



Kattulabavi or Gopinath temple in Kota village on the foothills of Kondaveedu fort, the biggest single building and one of the most captivating monuments, said to have been built by
Vijayanagara king Atchutaraya, in this region a good example or specimen of Vijayanagara style both for art and architecture.
Local individuals decision it Kattulabavi, regarding this name a story has been in a wide circulation, as for folk lore and local regards, in order to suppress the rebellion
of 72 poligars of that region, minister Ramayabhaskara conceived a plan, according to which, a well was dug in the temple garbha gruha in which swords were arranged, 72 poligars
were invited to the temple to the continued celebrations and created them pass into the well one by one and remove items.


 Prolayavema reddy (1325 -1353 AD)

Prolayavema reddy (1325 -1353 AD)
Except Prolayavema reddy all the reddy kings of Kondaveedu lived in Kondaveedu and dominated their kingdom from here.
The first king Prolayavema designed an outsized variety of forts, tradition says it was 84, like Dharanikota, Dhanadaprolu(Chandavolu), Vinukonda, Kondaveedu, Kondapalli and Bellamkonda and stationed garrisons in places of strategic importance.
Vema dominated his kingdom in barely manner therefore he attained the title ‘Dharmaprathistaguru’.
Vema’s court poet was Yerrapragada.
 Yerrapragada rendered the left-over part of Aranyaparva of Sanskrit Mahabarata into Telugu. Yerrapragada dedicated his two works namely Harivamsa and Ramayana to his lord Prolayavema. Prolayavema was very liberal to brahmans well versed in vedic lore and gathered round him many Sanskrit scholars and Telugu poets. Prolayavema facilitated the devotees both at Srisailam and Ahobilam by constructing steps to temples in the hills.

Anavotha or Anapotha reddy (1354 – 1364 AD) 

Anavotha succeeded to the throne in concerning 1353 AD.
Immediately when presumptuous the throne, Anavotha launched his jap campaign with the assistance of Choda devotion raja conquered and assumed the title of ‘Dvipa-jeta’ that was echt by Daksharama
temple inscription in 1356 AD.
Due to inequity of body laws governing commerce, sea born trade suffered heavy loss.
Considering the importance of marine trade, he personally visited Motupally, issued new charter to merchants engaged in overseas trade, and set forth there in the terms for carrying trade at Motupally.
Vijayanagara ruler Bukka1, Racherla chief Madanayaka, Bahamans all were craving to expand their kingdoms towards eastern coast.
At this essential juncture Anavotha died within the year 1364.
Anavotha was a good solider by way of his art he earned the title ‘Virannavotha’.
He is set to have granted many agraharas to brahmins and instituted many satras or feeding houses in places of pilgrimage.
He took nice interest within the welfare of the folks.
As we've seen on top of, Anavotha gave much stress on trade and repealed unjust laws regarding marine trade.
He also patronized men of letters both in Sanskrit and Telugu. He rebuilt the Amareswara temple at Amarvathi.


Anavema reddy (1364 – 1386 AD)
Anapotha’s or Anavotha’s thusn Kumaragiri was too young to become the king so his brother Anavema took the reigns of Kondaveedu in 1364 AD.
Anavema’s immediate task was to consolidate and expand the dominion.
In his eastern campaign, he reconquered the Diviseema and wore the title ‘Dividurgavibhala’.
His forces marched up to Simhachalam conquesting Vengi, Niravadyaprolu(Nidadavolu), Panara and Kona districts, then crossed Vasista and Goutami(Godavari) to lay seize Rajamahendravaram.
The fall of Rajamahendravaram made-up the means for the subjugation of the country additional east.
Next he occupied jaladurgas then Virasamantas(Koppulas), whose territory known as Andhrakhandamandala extending from Godavari to Kalinga. His sway continued up to Simhachalam.
Simhachalam inscription describes him as “Simhachaladi- Vindhyapada-pratisthapita-kirti-stambha” one World Health Organization planted pillars of fame at Simhachalam and alternative places at the foot of the Vindhya mountains.
The jap campaigns of Anavema ends in 1375 AD.

Next he turned his attention towards west. Vijayanagara kings were gradually enchroaching upon Kondaveedu kingdom. besides Vijayanagara kings, the princess of Raju konda and Devarakonda also were forging ahead, then Anavema led his forces over Srisailam against Vijayanagara king and won a decisive victory. After that he turned his attention on Rajukonda and subdued them.
His Srisailam record dated 1377 AD bares testimony to on top of conquest.
Anavema, after concluding the conquest over his enemies, with much devotion a gift of bells(gaja-ghanta) to the Pancharama temples i.e. Amararama(Amaravathi), Daksharama, Ksirarama(Palakol), Kumararama(Samarlakot) and Bhimarama(Gunupudi)near Bhimavaram.
Anavema was the best of the reddy rulers of Kondaveedu.
He assumed the title “mahaniyandhradesa pattabhiseka samvrta-mahabhagya” World Health Organization had the good fate of being topped king of the fantastic Andhra country.
He reconditioned the loss sustained by the dominion before his investiture and increased the glory by his conquest.
In his time the ability of Kondaveedu reached its celestial point.
It extended from Srisailam to the ocean, and from Kandukuru to Simhachalam.
He was eulogized as a simply and righteous ruler he took enjoyment of the corporate of nice poets and happy them with gifts.
By conducting vasanthosavas and taking active half in them he was referred to as vasantharaya (the king of spring).

Kumaragiri reddy (1386 – 1402 AD) 

Kumaragiri’s rule started when his uncle’s death, Anavema, in the year 1386 AD.
Kumaragiri instantly when returning to throne appointed Katayavema reddy as his chief adviser, who is none other than his brother in law.
Katayavema married Doddambika, female offspring of Anavota, sister of Kumaragiri.
The reign of Kumaragiri was a wonderful chapter within the history of Reddy kings of Kondaveedu in many another respect.
Under the leadership of katayavema as mortal minister created in depth campaigns all told directions that earned name and fame and gained honour and status for Kondaveedu among the neighboring countries.
The kings suffered defeat within the hands of Katayavema enclosed Vijayanagara, Rajukonda and Kalinga.
Katayavema wore title ‘Katakasurakara’ (the pillager of katak) by inducement defeat upon the Orrisa king.

While katayavema was extending the boarders of Kondaveedu kingdom, king Kumaragiri immersed in cultivating arts and letters.
Kumaragiri was a staunch pattern of music and dance.
Lakumadevi, a noted dancer, flourished in his court.
It is same that she down the art of dance and won laurels for musical compositions during a thousand ways in which.
Kumaragiri authored a book on natya namely ‘Vasantarajiyam’. He was acclaimed as vasanta raja.
Katayavema additionally was associate degree eminent scholar in Sanskritic language and wrote an article upon the dramas of Kalidasa referred to as ‘Kumaragirirajiyam’.
During the reign of Kumaragiri famous business men like Devayasetty and his son Tippayasetty traded with Kondaveedu.
They were noted for his or her overseas trade and that they accustomed offer variety of articles required each in times of war and peace like weapons, horses and perfumes
from different countries.

Pedakomativema reddy (1402 – 1420 AD) 

Pedakomativema succeeded to the throne as king of Kondaveedu in 1402AD.
But the succession to the power seems to be not smooth.
Pedakomativema was the son of Pedakomati reddy and grandchild of Machareddy World Health Organization was the elder brother of Prolayavema reddy.
Coming to throne, Pedakomativema faced both internal and external struggles, internally he faced problems from Katayavema, externally from Vijayanagara kings and Recharla Padmanayakas.
He, however successfully came out of these troubles and ruled up to 1420AD.
He was a good mortal, a profound scholar, and also a poet.
Right from starting of his rule he strived laborious to safeguard the interests of the Kondaveedu kingdom and to keep up the integrity and independence of the dominion.
Pedakomativema was the best of the royal poets of the reddy folk.
He was very much proficient in both music and literature. He is the author of ‘Sahityachintamani’ in Sanskrit, a treatise on rhetoric, Sangitachintamani, a treatise on music, two commentaries; one on Sringaradeepika, the other Saptasatisaratika, the former is a
commentary on Amarukasatak, and in a while the Saptasati complied by Satavahana king Hala.
Vamanabhatta Bana was a Sanskrit poet, he was court poet of Pedakomativema, he wrote a gadyakavya namely ‘Vemabhoopalacharitam’ otherwise known as ‘Veeranarayancharitam’, it is the biography of Pedakomativema reddy
Srinatha was the great poet of this age, patronized by Pedakomativema. He was appointed as vidyadhikari at Kondaveedu. Srinatha visited Vijayanagara court of Devaraya1, defeated the Vijayanagara poet Goudadindimabhattu and was honored with the title of kavisarvabhauma(sovereign of poets). Of course, he visited many royal courts, finally he was patronized by Rajamahendravaram king Verabhadra reddy, where he wrote Bhimeswarapuranam and dedicated to his lord Verabhadra reddy.

Rachavema Reddy (1420 – 1424 AD)

Pedakomativema was succeeded by his son Rachavema his rule ended within 4 years i.e. 1420 to 1424 AD.
While katayavema was extending the boarders of Kondaveedu kingdom, king Kumaragiri immersed in cultivating arts and letters. Kumaragiri was a staunch pattern of music and dance. Lakumadevi, a noted dancer, flourished in his court. It is said that she mastered the art of dance and won laurels for musical compositions in a thousand ways. Kumaragiri authored a book on natya namely ‘Vasantarajiyam’. He was acclaimed as vasanta raja. Katayavema also was an eminent scholar in Sanskrit and wrote a commentary upon the dramas of Kalidasa called ‘Kumaragirirajiyam’. During the reign of Kumaragiri famous business men like Devayasetty and his son Tippayasetty traded with Kondaveedu. They were known for their overseas trade and they used to supply a number of articles needed both in times of war and peace like weapons, horses and perfumes from different countries.

 SCULPTURES AT KONDAVEEDU 
 Pillar Lantern (Deepapu Sdhambham) in from of Janadhrana Temple at Chundi in Prakasam District, built by Mallareddy II son of Kandukuru Reddy king Sri Girireddy. Kandukuru Reddy kingdon was ruled by the successors of Mallareddy, brother of Prolayavemareddy which is a sub kingdom to Kondaveedu.






 


                                   Idols of Sitarama Lakshmana and Suryanarayana


         Lakshminarashimha temple in Kondaveedu Fort build in 14th Century


 Masjid built in Kondaveedu fort during 17th century during Kutubsheahi period


       SAJJA MAHAL BURUJU- One of the 23 burujus in Kondaveedu Fort


        VEDDULACHERUVU – One of the 3 tanks built on the hill fort by Reddy Kings


                       DARGA in Kondaveedu Fort RGA in Kondaveedu Fort


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